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line-height: 26px; margin-top: 30px; margin-bottom: 0px; padding: 0px; overflow-wrap: break-word; word-break: normal; color: rgb(102, 102, 102); font-family: "Microsoft YaHei";">一、前言   </p><p style="box-sizing: border-box; line-height: 26px; margin-top: 30px; margin-bottom: 0px; padding: 0px; overflow-wrap: break-word; word-break: normal; color: rgb(102, 102, 102); font-family: "Microsoft YaHei";"><br style="box-sizing: border-box; line-height: 1; margin: 0px; padding: 0px;"/></p><p style="box-sizing: border-box; line-height: 26px; margin-top: 30px; margin-bottom: 0px; padding: 0px; overflow-wrap: break-word; word-break: normal; color: rgb(102, 102, 102); font-family: "Microsoft YaHei";">    隨著社會主義經濟建設及各項事業的快速發展,城市規模不斷擴大,旅游事業日益繁榮,對城市環境衛生和市容市貌提出了更高的要求。城市生活垃圾對生態環境造成的嚴重危害,阻礙著國民經濟的可持續發展,已成為一個嚴重的社會問題。在各種垃圾處理方式中,堆肥處理方式首先可以將垃圾中易腐有機物轉化為土壤易接受的有機營養土;其次堆肥過程中的高溫發酵使垃圾中的致病菌、寄生蟲卵基本被殺死,消除了有害病菌的傳播,同時把垃圾變成了有機肥料,實現了資源回收,促進了物質良性循環,符合生態平衡規律。它不僅有效解決了城市生活垃圾的減量化的問題,而且解決了城市生活垃圾污染問題。所以利用堆肥技術處理城市生活垃圾受到各級政府的高度重視。   </p><p style="box-sizing: border-box; line-height: 26px; margin-top: 30px; margin-bottom: 0px; padding: 0px; overflow-wrap: break-word; word-break: normal; color: rgb(102, 102, 102); font-family: "Microsoft YaHei";"><br style="box-sizing: border-box; line-height: 1; margin: 0px; padding: 0px;"/></p><p style="box-sizing: border-box; line-height: 26px; margin-top: 30px; margin-bottom: 0px; padding: 0px; overflow-wrap: break-word; word-break: normal; color: rgb(102, 102, 102); font-family: "Microsoft YaHei";">二、現有堆肥系統   </p><p style="box-sizing: border-box; line-height: 26px; margin-top: 30px; margin-bottom: 0px; padding: 0px; overflow-wrap: break-word; word-break: normal; color: rgb(102, 102, 102); font-family: "Microsoft YaHei";"><br style="box-sizing: border-box; line-height: 1; margin: 0px; padding: 0px;"/></p><p style="box-sizing: border-box; line-height: 26px; margin-top: 30px; margin-bottom: 0px; padding: 0px; overflow-wrap: break-word; word-break: normal; color: rgb(102, 102, 102); font-family: "Microsoft YaHei";">用于處理城市生活垃圾的堆肥系統有許多種。按生物發酵的方式可分為好氧堆肥和厭氧堆肥。   </p><p style="box-sizing: border-box; line-height: 26px; margin-top: 30px; margin-bottom: 0px; padding: 0px; overflow-wrap: break-word; word-break: normal; color: rgb(102, 102, 102); font-family: "Microsoft YaHei";"><br style="box-sizing: border-box; line-height: 1; margin: 0px; padding: 0px;"/></p><p style="box-sizing: border-box; line-height: 26px; margin-top: 30px; margin-bottom: 0px; padding: 0px; overflow-wrap: break-word; word-break: normal; color: rgb(102, 102, 102); font-family: "Microsoft YaHei";">1.好氧堆肥。好氧分解過程一般在有氧和有水的情況下產生,它的形成如下所示:   </p><p style="box-sizing: border-box; line-height: 26px; margin-top: 30px; margin-bottom: 0px; padding: 0px; overflow-wrap: break-word; word-break: normal; color: rgb(102, 102, 102); font-family: "Microsoft YaHei";"><br style="box-sizing: border-box; line-height: 1; margin: 0px; padding: 0px;"/></p><p style="box-sizing: border-box; line-height: 26px; margin-top: 30px; margin-bottom: 0px; padding: 0px; overflow-wrap: break-word; word-break: normal; color: rgb(102, 102, 102); font-family: "Microsoft YaHei";">有機物質+好氧菌+氧氣+水→二氧化碳+水(蒸氣狀態)+硝酸鹽+硫酸鹽+氧化物   </p><p style="box-sizing: border-box; line-height: 26px; margin-top: 30px; margin-bottom: 0px; padding: 0px; overflow-wrap: break-word; word-break: normal; color: rgb(102, 102, 102); font-family: "Microsoft YaHei";"><br style="box-sizing: border-box; line-height: 1; margin: 0px; padding: 0px;"/></p><p style="box-sizing: border-box; line-height: 26px; margin-top: 30px; margin-bottom: 0px; padding: 0px; overflow-wrap: break-word; word-break: normal; color: rgb(102, 102, 102); font-family: "Microsoft YaHei";">    這種反應過程無任何有害物質產生,盡管沒有一種生物分解是無味的,但經過正確處理的好氧發酵所產生的氣味很小。它與傳統的衛生填埋相比,將厭氧消化過程由幾年縮短到20天以內,好氧堆肥處理具有過程可控制、易操作、降解快、資源化效果好、可以處理混合垃圾、運行費用低等特點。根據堆肥供氧方式和物料流動形式,目前國外常用的生活垃圾堆肥系統可分為以下幾類。  </p><p style="box-sizing: border-box; line-height: 26px; margin-top: 30px; margin-bottom: 0px; padding: 0px; overflow-wrap: break-word; word-break: normal; color: rgb(102, 102, 102); font-family: "Microsoft YaHei";"><br style="box-sizing: border-box; line-height: 1; margin: 0px; padding: 0px;"/></p><p style="box-sizing: border-box; line-height: 26px; margin-top: 30px; margin-bottom: 0px; padding: 0px; overflow-wrap: break-word; word-break: normal; color: rgb(102, 102, 102); font-family: "Microsoft YaHei";">?、僮匀煌L靜態堆肥。這是一種的堆肥方式,就是將準備的物料在一塊地上,堆高在2米左右,料堆形狀一般是長條狀,也可以結合場地條件堆成其他形狀。這種堆肥方式與敞開式自然堆積很相似,料堆內部常處于受壓狀態,外面空氣常常不能擴散到料堆內部而使其呈厭氧狀態,異味大,發酵不夠充分,發酵周期較長。  </p><p style="box-sizing: border-box; line-height: 26px; margin-top: 30px; margin-bottom: 0px; padding: 0px; overflow-wrap: break-word; word-break: normal; color: rgb(102, 102, 102); font-family: "Microsoft YaHei";"><br style="box-sizing: border-box; line-height: 1; margin: 0px; padding: 0px;"/></p><p style="box-sizing: border-box; line-height: 26px; margin-top: 30px; margin-bottom: 0px; padding: 0px; overflow-wrap: break-word; word-break: normal; color: rgb(102, 102, 102); font-family: "Microsoft YaHei";">?、趶娭仆L靜態堆肥。為克服自然通風靜態堆肥堆體內經常出現的供氧不足的缺點,一般在料堆底部沿著長度方向設置通風管或通風槽,由高壓根據堆體的發酵狀況強制通風。由于通過控制鼓風量能夠對堆體的需氧量和含水量實現一定程度的控制,其發酵周期比自然通風靜態堆肥明顯縮短。   </p><p style="box-sizing: border-box; line-height: 26px; margin-top: 30px; margin-bottom: 0px; padding: 0px; overflow-wrap: break-word; word-break: normal; color: rgb(102, 102, 102); font-family: "Microsoft YaHei";"><br style="box-sizing: border-box; line-height: 1; margin: 0px; padding: 0px;"/></p><p style="box-sizing: border-box; line-height: 26px; margin-top: 30px; margin-bottom: 0px; padding: 0px; overflow-wrap: break-word; word-break: normal; color: rgb(102, 102, 102); font-family: "Microsoft YaHei";">  ③機械翻堆條形堆肥,條形堆肥就是采用機械方式把堆肥物料堆為長條形。料堆的截面為梯形狀,高度一般為2米左右,寬度4米左右;料堆的長度根據場地確定。通過機械翻堆來促進料堆與空氣的接觸稱為機械翻堆條形堆肥。  </p><p style="box-sizing: border-box; line-height: 26px; margin-top: 30px; margin-bottom: 0px; padding: 0px; overflow-wrap: break-word; word-break: normal; color: rgb(102, 102, 102); font-family: "Microsoft YaHei";"><br style="box-sizing: border-box; line-height: 1; margin: 0px; padding: 0px;"/></p><p style="box-sizing: border-box; line-height: 26px; margin-top: 30px; margin-bottom: 0px; padding: 0px; overflow-wrap: break-word; word-break: normal; color: rgb(102, 102, 102); font-family: "Microsoft YaHei";">?、苊荛]式機械化翻堆堆肥。該方式主要工藝流程是:混合垃圾處理后的可堆腐物進入專門的發酵車間,采用專用翻堆設備-翻堆機,翻轉垃圾以利于垃圾的好氧發酵,充分好氧發酵后的垃圾再根據需要進行篩分處理。  </p><p style="box-sizing: border-box; line-height: 26px; margin-top: 30px; margin-bottom: 0px; padding: 0px; overflow-wrap: break-word; word-break: normal; color: rgb(102, 102, 102); font-family: "Microsoft YaHei";"><br style="box-sizing: border-box; line-height: 1; margin: 0px; padding: 0px;"/></p><p style="box-sizing: border-box; line-height: 26px; margin-top: 30px; margin-bottom: 0px; padding: 0px; overflow-wrap: break-word; word-break: normal; color: rgb(102, 102, 102); font-family: "Microsoft YaHei";"> 2.厭氧堆肥。有機垃圾厭氧堆肥是一種在厭氧狀態下利用微生物使垃圾中的有機物快速轉化為甲烷和氨的厭氧消化技術。厭氧過程一般在缺氧狀態下產生,它的形成如下所示:   </p><p style="box-sizing: border-box; line-height: 26px; margin-top: 30px; margin-bottom: 0px; padding: 0px; overflow-wrap: break-word; word-break: normal; color: rgb(102, 102, 102); font-family: "Microsoft YaHei";"><br style="box-sizing: border-box; line-height: 1; margin: 0px; padding: 0px;"/></p><p style="box-sizing: border-box; line-height: 26px; margin-top: 30px; margin-bottom: 0px; padding: 0px; overflow-wrap: break-word; word-break: normal; color: rgb(102, 102, 102); font-family: "Microsoft YaHei";">有機物質++二氧化碳+水→氣態甲烷(沼氣)+氨+最后產物   </p><p style="box-sizing: border-box; line-height: 26px; margin-top: 30px; margin-bottom: 0px; padding: 0px; overflow-wrap: break-word; word-break: normal; color: rgb(102, 102, 102); font-family: "Microsoft YaHei";"><br style="box-sizing: border-box; line-height: 1; margin: 0px; padding: 0px;"/></p><p style="box-sizing: border-box; line-height: 26px; margin-top: 30px; margin-bottom: 0px; padding: 0px; overflow-wrap: break-word; word-break: normal; color: rgb(102, 102, 102); font-family: "Microsoft YaHei";">    厭氧分解后的產物中含許多喜熱細菌并會對環境造成嚴重的污染。其中明顯含有有機脂肪酸,乙醛,硫醇(酒味),氣體還夾雜著一些化合物及一些有害混合物。例如:,它是一種非?;钴S并能致人于死地的高濃度氣體,它能很快地與一部分廢棄的有機質結合形成黑色有異味的混合物。  </p><p style="box-sizing: border-box; line-height: 26px; margin-top: 30px; margin-bottom: 0px; padding: 0px; overflow-wrap: break-word; word-break: normal; color: rgb(102, 102, 102); font-family: "Microsoft YaHei";"> </p><p style="box-sizing: border-box; line-height: 26px; margin-top: 30px; margin-bottom: 0px; padding: 0px; overflow-wrap: break-word; word-break: normal; color: rgb(102, 102, 102); font-family: "Microsoft YaHei";">三、新技術的提出   </p><p style="box-sizing: border-box; line-height: 26px; margin-top: 30px; margin-bottom: 0px; padding: 0px; overflow-wrap: break-word; word-break: normal; color: rgb(102, 102, 102); font-family: "Microsoft YaHei";"><br style="box-sizing: border-box; line-height: 1; margin: 0px; padding: 0px;"/></p><p style="box-sizing: border-box; line-height: 26px; margin-top: 30px; margin-bottom: 0px; padding: 0px; overflow-wrap: break-word; word-break: normal; color: rgb(102, 102, 102); font-family: "Microsoft YaHei";">    現階段國內垃圾處理水平及垃圾現狀表明:垃圾收集方式基本上是混合收集;垃圾成分的特性是高水分、高灰分和低熱值;大部分城市財政資金緊張,用于垃圾處理的費用很少;垃圾處理方式大部分城市采用堆放和簡易填埋,亂堆亂放的現象很普遍。由此可見,對中國這樣一個發展中國家來說,尋找一項投資少、運行成本低、無二次污染的處理技術,以達到經濟、社會、環境效益的統一是必要的。分析上述垃圾處理水平及垃圾現狀,可見,好氧發酵與厭氧發酵相比,好氧發酵適于混合垃圾及其運行費用低的優勢更適合中國國情。   </p><p style="box-sizing: border-box; line-height: 26px; margin-top: 30px; margin-bottom: 0px; padding: 0px; overflow-wrap: break-word; word-break: normal; color: rgb(102, 102, 102); font-family: "Microsoft YaHei";"><br style="box-sizing: border-box; line-height: 1; margin: 0px; padding: 0px;"/></p><p style="box-sizing: border-box; line-height: 26px; margin-top: 30px; margin-bottom: 0px; padding: 0px; overflow-wrap: break-word; word-break: normal; color: rgb(102, 102, 102); font-family: "Microsoft YaHei";">    在好氧發酵方式中,我們于二十世紀90年代初率先提出了利用全液壓驅動翻堆機對城市生活垃圾進行綜合處理的技術,全液壓驅動翻堆機是一種集機、電、液一體化的高效設備。它可以在噴灑菌種的同時對垃圾進行通氣、破碎、松散、混合和翻轉,并使垃圾保持理想的條形堆形狀。該設備具有耗油省、功率大、結構緊湊、操作靈活、維護保養方便等優點,還具有良好的混合和攪拌功能,不僅有效控制發酵參數呈狀態,而且可將一次發酵周期縮短到48~72h,大大提高了效率,減少了占地面積和對環境的污染。該設備經過鑒定,確認其技術填補了國內空白,處于國內領先水平。   </p><p style="box-sizing: border-box; line-height: 26px; margin-top: 30px; margin-bottom: 0px; padding: 0px; overflow-wrap: break-word; word-break: normal; color: rgb(102, 102, 102); font-family: "Microsoft YaHei";"><br style="box-sizing: border-box; line-height: 1; margin: 0px; padding: 0px;"/></p><p style="box-sizing: border-box; line-height: 26px; margin-top: 30px; margin-bottom: 0px; padding: 0px; overflow-wrap: break-word; word-break: normal; color: rgb(102, 102, 102); font-family: "Microsoft YaHei";">四、利用全液壓驅動翻堆機對城市生活垃圾進行綜合處理技術的工藝流程和特點   </p><p style="box-sizing: border-box; line-height: 26px; margin-top: 30px; margin-bottom: 0px; padding: 0px; overflow-wrap: break-word; word-break: normal; color: rgb(102, 102, 102); font-family: "Microsoft YaHei";"><br style="box-sizing: border-box; line-height: 1; margin: 0px; padding: 0px;"/></p><p style="box-sizing: border-box; line-height: 26px; margin-top: 30px; margin-bottom: 0px; padding: 0px; overflow-wrap: break-word; word-break: normal; color: rgb(102, 102, 102); font-family: "Microsoft YaHei";">    該技術經過我們多年的研制開發,徹底實現了垃圾處理的“無害化、減量化、資源化”方針,制肥有機物原料-土壤調節劑,經檢驗符合GB8172-87標準,其中鎘、鉻、砷、汞、鉛等重金屬的含量經質量監督檢驗部門檢測均遠遠低于國家控制標準。有機復合顆粒肥經檢驗符合農業部NY481-2002標準。詳細工藝流程見上圖。該技術由垃圾好氧發酵、垃圾分選、土壤調節劑制顆粒肥等部分組成,其中無害化填埋部分可以根據需要采用:</p><p style="box-sizing: border-box; line-height: 26px; margin-top: 30px; margin-bottom: 0px; padding: 0px; overflow-wrap: break-word; word-break: normal; color: rgb(102, 102, 102); font-family: "Microsoft YaHei";"><br style="box-sizing: border-box; line-height: 1; margin: 0px; padding: 0px;"/></p><p style="box-sizing: border-box; line-height: 26px; margin-top: 30px; margin-bottom: 0px; padding: 0px; overflow-wrap: break-word; word-break: normal; color: rgb(102, 102, 102); font-family: "Microsoft YaHei";">①不能制肥部分焚燒,焚燒后的灰渣制路面磚</p><p style="box-sizing: border-box; line-height: 26px; margin-top: 30px; margin-bottom: 0px; padding: 0px; overflow-wrap: break-word; word-break: normal; color: rgb(102, 102, 102); font-family: "Microsoft YaHei";"><br style="box-sizing: border-box; line-height: 1; margin: 0px; padding: 0px;"/></p><p style="box-sizing: border-box; line-height: 26px; margin-top: 30px; margin-bottom: 0px; padding: 0px; overflow-wrap: break-word; word-break: normal; color: rgb(102, 102, 102); font-family: "Microsoft YaHei";">②不能制肥部分的塑料造?;驘捰?、其余部分制路面磚,這兩種組合。利用這兩種組合把垃圾全部資源化利用。   該技術充分利用全液壓驅動翻堆機,采用好氧菌發酵的生態工程原理對垃圾進行機械翻堆、條形堆肥、敞開式好氧發酵。具有以下主要特點:</p><p style="box-sizing: border-box; line-height: 26px; margin-top: 30px; margin-bottom: 0px; padding: 0px; overflow-wrap: break-word; word-break: normal; color: rgb(102, 102, 102); font-family: "Microsoft YaHei";"><br style="box-sizing: border-box; line-height: 1; margin: 0px; padding: 0px;"/></p><p style="box-sizing: border-box; line-height: 26px; margin-top: 30px; margin-bottom: 0px; padding: 0px; overflow-wrap: break-word; word-break: normal; color: rgb(102, 102, 102); font-family: "Microsoft YaHei";">①設備投資少;</p><p style="box-sizing: border-box; line-height: 26px; margin-top: 30px; margin-bottom: 0px; padding: 0px; overflow-wrap: break-word; word-break: normal; color: rgb(102, 102, 102); font-family: "Microsoft YaHei";">②垃圾無害化、減量化處理運行成本低;</p><p style="box-sizing: border-box; line-height: 26px; margin-top: 30px; margin-bottom: 0px; padding: 0px; overflow-wrap: break-word; word-break: normal; color: rgb(102, 102, 102); font-family: "Microsoft YaHei";">③資源化處理的產品收益較高;</p><p style="box-sizing: border-box; line-height: 26px; margin-top: 30px; margin-bottom: 0px; padding: 0px; overflow-wrap: break-word; word-break: normal; color: rgb(102, 102, 102); font-family: "Microsoft YaHei";">④處理和利用過程中無二次污染;</p><p style="box-sizing: border-box; line-height: 26px; margin-top: 30px; margin-bottom: 0px; padding: 0px; overflow-wrap: break-word; word-break: normal; color: rgb(102, 102, 102); font-family: "Microsoft YaHei";">⑤發酵過程中破袋、噴灑菌種、通風和攪拌同時完成;</p><p style="box-sizing: border-box; line-height: 26px; margin-top: 30px; margin-bottom: 0px; padding: 0px; overflow-wrap: break-word; word-break: normal; color: rgb(102, 102, 102); font-family: "Microsoft YaHei";">⑥根據客戶需要選擇工藝組合,靈活性強;</p><p style="box-sizing: border-box; line-height: 26px; margin-top: 30px; margin-bottom: 0px; padding: 0px; overflow-wrap: break-word; word-break: normal; color: rgb(102, 102, 102); font-family: "Microsoft YaHei";">⑦基本解決了垃圾處理中分類的難題;</p><p style="box-sizing: border-box; line-height: 26px; margin-top: 30px; margin-bottom: 0px; padding: 0px; overflow-wrap: break-word; word-break: normal; color: rgb(102, 102, 102); font-family: "Microsoft YaHei";">⑧無害化時間短,垃圾處理量大,所占土地可以反復利用;</p><p style="box-sizing: border-box; line-height: 26px; margin-top: 30px; margin-bottom: 0px; padding: 0px; overflow-wrap: break-word; word-break: normal; color: rgb(102, 102, 102); font-family: "Microsoft YaHei";">⑨機械化程度較高,工人勞動保護措施好。   </p><p style="box-sizing: border-box; line-height: 26px; margin-top: 30px; margin-bottom: 0px; padding: 0px; overflow-wrap: break-word; word-break: normal; color: rgb(102, 102, 102); font-family: "Microsoft YaHei";"><br style="box-sizing: border-box; line-height: 1; margin: 0px; padding: 0px;"/>五、結束語   </p><p style="box-sizing: border-box; line-height: 26px; margin-top: 30px; margin-bottom: 0px; padding: 0px; overflow-wrap: break-word; word-break: normal; color: rgb(102, 102, 102); font-family: "Microsoft YaHei";">    生活垃圾堆肥是國內外垃圾處理的主要方法之一。將城市生活垃圾中的有機物經高溫堆肥之后,所產生的腐熟堆肥其實就是腐殖質,即土壤里的有機成分,含有一定量的氮、磷、鉀和少量農作物生長所需要的微量元素。分析結果表明,農田施用由城市生活垃圾制造的肥料后,對土壤理化性狀的影響很明顯,可以提高土壤含水量,增大空隙率,增加有機質和土壤肥力等,是一種有價值的“土壤改良劑”。垃圾堆肥還可以糾正因施用化肥不當而引起的地力失調。所以國務院1988國發(83)文關于加強有機肥工作的通知中,要求城市環衛部門以城市生活垃圾、糞便進行工廠化處理,以此補充農村對有機肥的需要。   </p><p style="box-sizing: border-box; line-height: 26px; margin-top: 30px; margin-bottom: 0px; padding: 0px; overflow-wrap: break-word; word-break: normal; color: rgb(102, 102, 102); font-family: "Microsoft YaHei";"><br style="box-sizing: border-box; line-height: 1; margin: 0px; padding: 0px;"/></p><p style="box-sizing: border-box; line-height: 26px; margin-top: 30px; margin-bottom: 0px; padding: 0px; overflow-wrap: break-word; word-break: normal; color: rgb(102, 102, 102); font-family: "Microsoft YaHei";">    該技術經鑒定,確認該工藝符合國家產業政策和垃圾處理“無害化、資源化、減量化”方針。采用全液壓驅動翻堆機,對垃圾進行機械破碎,同時噴灑菌種,并對垃圾進行通氣、破碎、松散、翻轉,利用敞開式好氧發酵的生物技術原理,通過破碎、篩分,對垃圾進行無害化、減量化處理,并對垃圾中的篩下物進行顆粒制肥,符合《城市生活垃圾堆肥處理廠運行、維護及其安全技術規程》(CJJ/T86-2000),綜合處理成本低,占用土地少,有良好的環境效益、社會效益和一定的經濟效益,有較高的使用和推廣價值。是城市垃圾處理的一種先進工藝,處于國內領先水平。</p><p style="box-sizing: border-box; line-height: 26px; margin-top: 30px; margin-bottom: 0px; padding: 0px; overflow-wrap: break-word; word-break: normal; color: rgb(102, 102, 102); font-family: "Microsoft YaHei";"><br style="box-sizing: border-box; line-height: 1; 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